People, politics

13 Political terms everyone needs to know!


A set of laws and regulations based on which a country is governed. The Basic Structure of the country, the Rights granted to citizens, the form of Government, the role of the Administration etc would be defined in the Constitution. 

2.Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights are the basic  demands of the people in a country. These Rights are fundamental in nature and therefore are inalienable and indivisible. They cannot be taken away from the citizens under any circumstances. An example would be the Right to Life. 


A person who believes in Liberalism, an ideology which focuses on Individual Rights and freedoms. Liberalism propagates a free market, a small Government that does not infringe on the Rights of the people and a minimal role of the Government in the economy 


A person who believes in Socialism. Socialism is an Ideology which believes in  the state’s role in driving the economy and ensuring equal distribution of resources among the people. Socialism propagates Government ownership of Industries, extensive social welfare measures and the community as a whole would have control over the means of production rather than private Individuals. 


A Conservative is a person who believes in Conservative values and ideas, they aim at preserving the existing social structures and oppose any change in the social structures which govern human life like marriage, divorce etc. In the US and some Western countries, Conservatives are against abortion, same sex marriage, increased immigration etc. 

6.Free Market 

A Free Market is an economic market that does not have extensive Government interference. The forces of Demand and Supply would determine the prices in such an economy. 

7.Free Trade 

Free Trade indicates the absence of any trading barriers between countries like duties, tariffs, licence systems etc. Countries have Free Trade Agreements (FTA) in order to promote Free Trade. 


The integration of all countries of the world by allowing free movement of goods, ideas, capital and people between national borders. 


A political position which focuses  on schemes and laws which are popular with the wider public. A populist political group would aim their communication at ordinary people, who may feel left out of the elite political class. Donald Trump, Nigel Farage, Javier Bolsanaro, Marie Le Pen are examples of populist leaders. 


An ideology which propagates equality between men and women. 


A form of Government where the Head of State is elected. Example- the United States, India and France. 

12.Constitutional Monarchy

A mix of Monarchy and Constitutional Democracy, the Head of State would normally be the Monarch, who would not be elected and the Head of Government would be elected by the people. Example- United Kingdom, Malaysia, Bhutan etc. 

13.International Organization 

An organization which works across National boundaries. An example would be the United Nations and its various wings like the World Health Organization, World Food Programme etc. These bodies aim at fostering dialogue and cooperation  among countries to ensure world peace and development. 

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